Peer review artikel

Occurrence, Fate, and Related Health Risks of PFAS in Raw and Produced Drinking Water


“This study investigates human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water and evaluates human health risks. An analytical method for 56 target PFAS, including ultrashort-chain (C2–C3) and branched isomers, was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 ng/L, except for trifluoroacetic-acid and perfluoropropanoic-acid with higher LODs of 35 and 0.24 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to raw and produced drinking water from 18 Dutch locations, including groundwater or surface water as source, and applied various treatment processes. Ultrashort-chain (300 to 1100 ng/L) followed by the group of perfluoroalkyl-carboxylic-acids (PFCA, ≥C4) (0.4 to 95.1 ng/L) were dominant. PFCA and perfluoroalkyl-sulfonic-acid (≥C4), including precursors, showed significantly higher levels in drinking water produced from surface water. However, no significant difference was found for ultrashort PFAS, indicating the need for groundwater protection. Negative removal of PFAS occasionally observed for advanced treatment indicates desorption and/or degradation of precursors. The proportion of branched isomers was higher in raw and produced drinking water as compared to industrial production. Drinking water produced from surface water, except for a few locations, exceed non-binding provisional guideline values proposed; however, all produced drinking waters met the recent soon-to-be binding drinking-water-directive requirements.”

(Citation: Sadia, M., Nollen, I., – Occurrence, Fate, and Related Health Risks of PFAS in Raw and Produced Drinking Water – Environmental Sciences & Technology (2023) – DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.2c06015 – (Open Access))

© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society

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