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Emerging micropollutants in municipal wastewater: occurrence and treatment options


“This chapter will introduce the origin of micropollutants in the water cycle and their impact on the environment and humans. Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can remove these newly emerging contaminants to a limited extent, and this chapter will show the possibilities and limitations of current and future technologies (adsorption by activated carbon, advanced oxidation, and reverse osmosis).
The chapter will present a case study of the broad overview of the research into this topic in Europe, and more specifically in the Netherlands, how the precautionary principle is applied, and how good quality WWTP effluent is obtained. This is very important, especially if the surface water is used as a source of drinking water. Local, social, economic, and environmental parameters determine which technologies are combined. Pilot-scale studies show the possibilities of advanced treatment methods, and how a zero-discharge concept can be realized.
Finally, a small subsection will be dedicated to discussing the polluter pays principle; how a holistic approach to micropollutants throughout the lifecycle is required, not only focusing on end-of-pipe (WWTP) solutions.”

(Citation: Hofman-Caris, C.H.M., Teo, C.J. – Emerging micropollutants in municipal wastewater: occurrence and treatment options – In: Integrated and Hybrid Process Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Chapter 21, pp. 487-516 – DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-823031-2.00026-4 – eBook ISBN: 9780128230565 – Paperback ISBN: 9780128230312)

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