Qualitative screening for new psychoactive substances in wastewater collected during a city festival using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry
“The inclusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the wastewater-based epidemiology approach presents challenges, such as the reduced number of users that translates into low concentrations of residues and the limited pharmacokinetics information available, which renders the choice of target biomarker difficult. The sampling during special social settings, the analysis with improved analytical techniques, and data processing with specific workflow to narrow the search, are required approaches for a successful monitoring. This work presents the application of a qualitative screening technique to wastewater samples collected during a city festival, where likely users of recreational substances gather and consequently higher residual concentrations of used NPS are expected. The analysis was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Data were processed using an algorithm that involves the extraction of accurate masses (calculated based on molecular formula) of expected m/z from an in-house database containing about 2,000 entries, including NPS and transformation products. We positively identified eight NPS belonging to the classes of synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines and opioids. In addition, the presence of benzodiazepine analogues, classical drugs and other licit substances with potential for abuse was confirmed. The screening workflow based on a database search was useful in the identification of NPS biomarkers in wastewater. The findings highlight the specific classical drugs and low NPS use in the Netherlands. Additionally, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (FA) were identified in wastewater for the first time.”
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
(Citaat: Causanilles, A., Kinyua, J., Ruttkies, C., Nuijs, A.L.N. van, Emke, E., Covaci, A., Voogt, W.P. de – Qualitative screening for new psychoactive substances in wastewater collected during a city festival using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry – Chemosphere 184(2017)1186-1193)