Groundwater salinity patterns along the coast of the Western Netherlands and the application of cone penetration tests
“Submarine groundwater discharge is an important part of the hydrological cycle, but remains under-investigated for confined aquifers with no surface outcrop at the beach. This paper considers the offshore directed flow of fresh groundwater in the unconfined and confined aquifers along the coast of the Western Netherlands. Salinity patterns based on hydrological, geological, and geophysical field data are presented in five shore-normal hydrogeological cross-sections, extending from the beach to 4 km inland. The offshore continuation of the fresh groundwater is discussed using analytical models and cone penetration tests (CPTs) performed at the beach. All CPTs taken around the low water line of the intertidal zone reveal that changes from saline to fresh groundwater are always associated with a low-permeable layer. Such a low-permeable layer, which can be as thin as a few decimetres, may form the confining layer between the unconfined and confined aquifers, or can occur within of the unconfined aquifer. Due to its high vertical resolution, a CPT is an effective method to detect these variations in salinity and lithology. At each of the investigated locations, freshwater was present in the confined aquifer. Assuming that this fresh groundwater is part of an active flow system, the submarine freshwater tongue is estimated to extend at least a few hundred meters offshore, based on analytical model calculations. Hydrochemical data from an old offshore borehole, however, suggest this may be an underestimate and that the submarine freshwater tongue originates from former times when the coastline was located further westward than nowadays.”
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
(Citaat: Pauw, P.S., Groen, J. et al. – Post Groundwater salinity patterns along the coast of the Western Netherlands and the application of cone penetration tests – Journal of Hydrology 551(2017)756-767 – doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.04.021)