Rapport i.s.m. derden - D4.4

QMRA manual India context


“Drinking water supply in rural India is challenged by many factors both qualitative and quantitative. The central drinking water supply may still pose microbial risks since drinking water sources are polluted and treatment systems may not be sufficient to remove pathogens to an acceptable level. Central water supply is generally provided intermittently for a few hours per day or days. The lack of constant pressure means distributions system hydraulic integrity isn’t maintained and microbial contamination can occur. Most households need to collect and store water in their homes, also leading to potential contamination. When central water supply is insufficient or not preferred, people turn to other sources such as private open wells, bore wells, springs, rainwater harvesting or local surface waters. When consumers think there is a risk they may treat the water in various ways such as boiling, filtering with sieve, cloth, biosand filter or commercial home filters. People generally use different sources during different periods of the year based on tradition, observations and perceptions. The European Water4India project strives to provide technologies to improve drinking water supply in rural India and reduce health risks. Understanding of the behaviour and perception of people is essential to identify or develop adequate treatment that addresses the main health risk. The first step is to assess which drinking water sources and behaviours introduce the highest risk.”

(Citaat: Smeets, P.W.M.H., Linneck, S., Bel, N. van – W4In QMRA manual India context (D4.4) Water4India Project EU Grant 308496 (2015))

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