Drinking water temperature in future urban areas
The temperature of the wastrongly influenced by the soil temperature around the drinking water distribution pipes. Earlier research has shown that the water in the pipes reaches the soil temperature. Soil temperature is influenced by the weather (air temperature, solar radiation, etc.), the environment (rural vs. urban), soil type (sand vs. clay) and the level of urbanization due to the urban heat island effect. The term “heat island” describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas due to limited evapotranspiration, heat storage in buildings and urban surfaces, and due to anthropogenic heat sources. Sources of anthropogenic heat include cooling and heating buildings, manufacturing, transportation, lighting, etc.