Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1ug/L of arsenic
Arsenic (As) is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world.
The current drinking water permissible limit for As in the European Union (EU), United States of America (US), Japan and many other high income countries is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of As suggest that purely based on health effects the drinking water As limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. Looking back at the history of WHO`s recommendations for maximum permissible levels, a gradual lowering of maximum allowable As concentration in drinking water can be observed
since 1958, when maximum As concentration of 200 μg/L was suggested, till 1993, when the Guidelines for Drinking water Quality (GDWQ) recommended 10 μg/L in a provisional definition. Since 1993, the drinking water As guideline of WHO has remained unchanged. Today there exists a general consensus that, if possible, it is necessary to remove As as far as possible below 10 μg/L, not only for the safety of human health from the toxicity of As but also for avoiding future noncompliance issues when the national standards will be lowered further. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the US Natural
Resources Defense Council (NRDC) have already recommended As guidelines below 1 μg/L to attain an acceptable lifetime cancer risk.
(Citaat: Arslan Ahmad Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1ug/L of arsenic (2014))