Quantifying summed fullerene nC60 and related transformation products in water using LC LTQ Orbitrap MS and application to environmental samples
“The application of engineered nanomaterials increases strongly. Development of analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples is essential for human and environmental risk assessment of the nanoparticles. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive analytical method to quantify nC(60) in water, using accurate mass screening liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry. nC(60) can be transformed by oxidation, reduction and photochemical reaction. Therefore, the formation of some transformation products of nC(60) was studied as well. Finally, the developed analytical method was applied to surface water samples from several locations in the Netherlands. The developed method enabled to detect and quantify aqueous concentrations of the summed nC(60) and its transformation products as low as 5 ng/L. It was observed that nC(60) transformation products exceed quantities of the parent C(60). Despite the high sensitivity of the developed method, no nC(60) or transformation products were detected in an array of Dutch surface waters. This might be due to low emissions, losses in the aqueous phase by sedimentation, sorption or further transformation processes.”
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(Citaat: van Wezel, A.P., Morinière, V., et al. – Quantifying summed fullerene nC60 and related transformation products in water using LC LTQ Orbitrap MS and application to environmental samples – Environment International 37(2011)6, p.1063-1067)