Influence of Ca and Na ions in backwash water on ultrafiltration fouling control
“The effect of calcium and sodium in backwash water on the fouling control of ultrafiltration is investigated on a bench scale. Besides permeate of ultrafiltration and demineralized water, solutions with different calcium or sodium concentrations were used for backwash. The results show that backwashing with demineralized water is better than with permeate of ultrafiltration. The backwash efficiency decreases when calcium and sodium are added in demineralized water for backwash. That is probably because the presence of calcium and sodium in backwash water increases the Ca-bridging effect between the negatively charged membrane and the negatively charged NOM, and compresses the double layer of the membrane and the NOM, leading to a strong adhesion force on the membrane.”
Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
(Citaat: Li, S., Heijman, S.G.J., et al., – Influence of Ca and Na ions in backwash water on ultrafiltration fouling control – Desalination 250(2010)2, p.861-864)