Removal of divalent cations reduces fouling of ultrafiltration membranes
“The effect of divalent ions on hydraulic irreversible fouling of ultrafiltration membranes was studied. Not only the effect of removing divalent ions by pretreatment of raw water with ion exchange is quantitatively studied, but also the effects of different types of backwash water are considered. By replacing divalent ions with sodium in cation exchange, the amount of hydraulic irreversible fouling (remaining fouling after backwashing) is reduced by at least 60%. When adding either calcium or magnesium to water treated with cation exchange, a linear relation is found between the ion concentration and the irreversible fouling rate. The effects of calcium and magnesium are identical when the concentrations are expressed in mol/L. Removing divalent ions from the backwash water does not affect irreversible fouling, but when using MilliQ water as backwash water, irreversible fouling can (almost) completely be prevented.”
Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
(Citaat: Abrahamse, A.J., Lipreau, C., Li, S., Heijman, S.G.J. – Removal of divalent cations reduces fouling of ultrafiltration membranes – Journal of Membrane Science 323(2008)1, p.153-158))